Physical fitness is a general concept defined in many ways by differing scientists. Here two major categories are considered: general fitness (a state of health and well-being), and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations). Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, hygiene and rest.
Physical fitness has been defined as a set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.
Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports.
- 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training.
- Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum.
- Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job.
- Soldiers of the United States Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).
Hill sprints, this training requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races.